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Discussing the Fundamentals - Week 2 Carbohydrates


Week 2 discussion is all about carbs! Should you eat them or not????

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1. Discuss the health impact of sugar consumption. How does sugar consumption differ from starch consumption in your body? Do you think this is a significant difference? Please include a comparison of chemical structure, digestion, and absorption in your answer.


The other day I was watching a show on TV and the people were having a conversation about the coronavirus. One was a doctor of epidemiology and the other was the host of the show who asked what could be done to help people prevent getting the coronavirus. The host said to stop eating sugar for your immune system. The doctor said that yes sugar is an inflammatory and could cause someone issues.


So let’s take a look at what sugar consumption is as opposed to starch consumption.


“The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages” (Aller, Astrup, Martinez, Abete, van Baak, 2011).


We are all aware of the rise of obesity. It’s one of the reasons I am in this Masters Program. There is a difference between simple sugars and starches. Let’s see what this study found.



(Aller 2011).


This diagram! I Love it! It totally shows that eating a simple sugar is going to make you hungry and cause overconsumption, where as an SDS is going to give you a more sustained satiety level. BUT, there is a caveat to Starch, because they too can cause some issues as we see with the RDS that will also cause overconsumption. It’s the simple sugars we want to avoid. Both sides of this, sugars and starches, the complex carbs can provide energy, but it’s the fiber filled carbs we want to consume more of.


“Have carbs got a a bad reputation? Certainly…forever understandable reason,”said Jim Mann,MB,Ch B,PhD,a professor in human nutrition and medicine at the University of Otago in New Zealand. “They are highly refined ,and,in many countries,sugar intake is high.” But just as there are “bad” fats and “good” fats, there are also bad carbs and good carbs.“We showed very clearly in our work in diabetes that the benefits of carbs came from the good carbs,and good carbs aren't high in sugar,”Mann said.“They are high in fiber.” Mann,who spent years helping to hammer out the World Health Organization’s definition of fiber,recently authored series of systematic reviews and metaanalyses that showed intake of fiber and whole grains—probably due to their high fiber content—but not foods with a low glycemic index was associated with significant reductions in mortality and chronic illnesses.(Breakfast Cereals Another Manufactured whole grain products are more highly processed today,sotheyprovideless fiberand,likely,fewer health benefits,the authors noted.)” (Rubin 2019).


Aller, 2011 concludes, “The combination of literature reviewed in this paper, suggesting potential beneficial effects of intake of starches, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose, support the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables. These contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.”


For many years I have been trying to eat a complex car diet I will Google images like this one to keep me on track. Pairing that with a protein will make you fill more satiate after… at least in my humble opinion.


Erik E. J. G. Aller, Arne Astrup, J. Alfredo Martinez, Itziar Abete, Marleen A. van Baak. Starches, Sugars and Obesity. Nutrients. 2011;(3):341. doi:10.3390/nu3030341.


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Rubin R. High-Fiber Diet Might Protect Against Range of Conditions. JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2019;(17):1653.


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2. Examine the labeled food products in your home for the presence of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in the ingredients list. Share these foods with the class and indicate where on the ingredients list HFCS falls. Discuss the health impact of HFCS consumption.


High Fructose Corn Syrup is defined as a concentrated form of liquid sugar which may contain a wide range of fructose concentrations. Most commonly it contains either 42% or 55% fructose, but may contain up to 90% fructose by https://sugarscience.ucsf.edu/


.High Fructose Corn syrup!!! When I put in my search terms the first article was “High-fructose corn syrup enhances intestinal tumor growth in mice.” If that’s not telling I don’t know what is….


“In this study, we have found that HFCS, the primary sweetener used in SSBs, contributes to intestinal tumorigenesis in mice by accelerating glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. These effects are independent of obesity and metabolic syndrome. HFCS in liquid form rapidly increases the levels of fructose and glucose in the intestinal lumen and serum, respectively, which allows intestinal tumors to take up these sugars for their growth. Our results also identify KHK as a key accelerator of tumor growth. When tumors are exposed to both glucose and fructose, KHK consumes fructose, rapidly depleting ATP, which in turn accelerates glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. This reduction in ATP accelerates the flux of glucose through glycolysis by activating PFK…….Our study also provides important preclinical evidence that the combination of dietary glucose and fructose, even at moderate dose, can enhance intestinal tumor growth. Whether these findings can be extrapolated to humans requires further investigation” (Goncalves, Lu, Tutnauer, et al. 2019).


Ok so maybe we aren’t mice. But honestly… it causes alarm.


Since I have been displaced by a recent tornado in my town that has left me without electricity for an unknown amount of time I am at my sister’s house. I have nothing with HFC in my house but here’s what I found…


Heinz Tomato Ketchup: Tomatoes good, Vinegar, and then HFCS, and then regular corn syrup and what is natural flavoring?


“The relationship between HFCS consumption and health outcomes has been broadly discussed in popular literature and in discipline-based research literature. Much of the popular literature attributes the rising incidence of obesity and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus to HFCS. This literature proposes that HFCS affects hormone levels that control appetite, thus preventing individuals from feeling full or sated after eating. However, little evidence exists to associate consumption of HFCS with higher blood glucose levels, changes in appetite, weight gain, or elevated lipid or triglyceride levels when compared to consumption of table sugar. However, compelling evidence does exist suggesting that greater changes in lipid and triglyceride levels may be associated with consumption of fructose in healthy adults. Because the glucose in table sugar does not seem to be associated with changes in lipid levels, it may be the fructose in both table sugar and in HFCS that leads to elevated lipid and triglyceride levels. What this may mean is that increased sugar or HFCS consumption and associated increased fructose consumption leading to elevated triglyceride levels, may play a significant role in development of coronary artery disease and perhaps the development of hyperinsulinemia and Type 2 Diabetes mellitus”


Reading labels is so important. But food companies try to be sneaky at times. I am so happy with the new label requirement from the FDA. I noticed on the Heinz label it did not list the additional sugars added, but I don’t know how old the bottle of ketchup is, but on the foods I buy I see it everywhere. It’s something I check more than fat nowadays.


Goncalves MD, Lu C, Tutnauer J, et al. High-fructose corn syrup enhances intestinal tumor growth in mice. Science. 2019;(6433):1345.


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Sobel LL, Dalby E. Sugar or High Fructose Corn Syrup-What Should Nurses Teach Patients and Families? Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. 2014;11(2):126-132. doi:10.1111/wvn.12027.


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Thank you for reading!

#nutritionist #drinkwater #optimalwellness #mastersprogram #eatwell #cleaneating #eatvegetables #eattherainbow #healthytips #healthyhabits #healthjourney #carbohydrates #highfructosecornsyrup

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